Country profile: Vietnam
Vietnam, a one-party
communist state, has one of south-east Asia's fastest-growing economies
and has set its sights on becoming a developed nation by 2020.
It became a unified country in 1976 after the armed forces of the
communist north had seized the south of the country in the previous
This followed three decades of bitter independence wars,
which the communists fought first against the colonial power France,
then against US-backed South Vietnam. In its latter stages, this
conflict held the attention of the world.
The US had entered hostilities to stem the "domino effect" of successive nations falling to communism.
jungle war produced heavy casualties on both sides, atrocities against
civilians, and the indiscriminate destruction and contamination of much
of the landscape.
A visit to Vietnam by US President Bill
Clinton in November 2000 was presented as the culmination of American
efforts to normalise relations with the former enemy.
Economic reform has challenged Communist Party ideology
Vietnam struggled to find its feet after unification and it tried at
first to organise the agriculture-based economy along strict
But elements of market forces and private enterprise were introduced from the late 1980s and a stock exchange opened in 2000.
investment has grown and the US is Vietnam's main trading partner. In
the cities, the consumer market is fuelled by the appetite of a young,
middle class for electronic and luxury goods. After 12 years of
negotiations the country joined the World Trade Organization in January
But the disparity in wealth between urban and rural
Vietnam is wide and some Communist Party leaders worry that too much
economic liberalisation will weaken their power base and introduce
"decadent" ideas into Vietnamese society.
Vietnam has been
accused of suppressing political dissent and religious freedom. Rights
groups have singled out Hanoi's treatment of ethnic minority hill tribe
people, collectively known as Montagnards.
- Full name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
- Population: 88.1 million (UN, 2009)
- Capital: Hanoi
- Largest city: Ho Chi Minh City
- Area: 329,247 sq km (127,123 sq miles)
- Major language: Vietnamese
- Major religion: Buddhism
- Life expectancy: 72 years (men), 76 years (women) (UN)
- Monetary unit: 1 dong = 100 xu
- Main exports: Petroleum, rice, coffee, clothing, fish
- GNI per capita: US $890 (World Bank, 2008)
- Internet domain: .vn
- International dialling code: +84
President: Nguyen Minh Triet
Nguyen Minh Triet, the head of the Communist Party in Ho Chi Minh City,
as president in June 2006. He has a reputation for fighting corruption
and is seen as an economic reformer.
The former head of state,
Tran Duc Luong, had submitted his resignation alongside the prime
minister and the chairman of the National Assembly. The change of guard
had been expected.
Secretary-general of the Communist Party: Nong Duc Manh
Nong Duc Manh aims to modernise Vietnam
The Communist Party holds the real power in Vietnam. It reappointed Nong Duc Manh as its secretary-general in April 2006.
Manh, who is seen as a moderniser, urged Vietnam to speed up economic
reforms and to tackle bureaucracy and deep-rooted corruption.
He says he wants to "lift people from poverty and hunger" and to turn Vietnam into a developed, industrialised country.
Manh began his first term in 2001, becoming the first secretary-general
with no direct experience of the struggle for independence. He oversaw
five years of strong economic growth.
The Communist Party leadership recommends candidates for the posts of president and prime minister.
The Communist Party has a strong grip on the media. The Ministry of
Culture and Information controls the press and broadcasting.
The government has shut down several publications for violating the
narrow limits on permissible reporting. Journalists face large fines
for transgressions which include denying revolutionary achievements and
spreading "harmful" information or "reactionary ideology".
are hundreds of newspapers and magazines, but television is the
dominant medium. Vietnam Television (VTV) broadcasts from Hanoi and is
available via satellite to the wider region. There are many provincial
stations. Some foreign channels are carried via cable.
Voice of Vietnam (VoV) operates six radio networks, including the VoV 5
channel with programmes in English, French and Russian.
were around 20 million internet users by June 2008
(InternetWorldStats). Internet providers face fines or closure for
breaking the rules and "cyber dissidents" have been imprisoned.